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How Grammar Can Help to Maintain
Motivation of Advanced Learners
by Greg Gobel
- lesson plan 4

Lesson procedure

Stage 1
Aims:

Use of authentic listening recordings to promote interest, to engage the learners, and to use real reported language in class.
Use of closed pairs here so learners know they can help each other, even though listening can be considered a solitary task.
For learners to verify with each other and to prompt S-S interaction.
6 mins
1A. Awareness raising: Learners listen to 5 recorded segments of authentic spoken English. While they listen, they match bits of reported speech from a worksheet with each recorded segment. Learners may compare their answers with their partner as we progress through this stage. (Note: I think learners will only need to hear the segments one time here, I will play them more times as needed.)

  • Interaction pattern: closed pairs
  • Classroom aids: CD, CD player, remote control, worksheets
  • Time: 4 minutes

1B. Learners compare their matching from 1A with a partner to confirm. If learners have done this on their own throughout 1A, we can jump ahead to stage 2.

  • Interaction pattern: Closed pairs.
  • Classroom aids: worksheets from 1A.
  • Time: 1-2 minutes

Stage 2
Aims:

For learners to be engaged in their own learning of these ways of reporting speech.
For learners to notice important features of the target language.
For grammar ‘presentation’ stage to be more learner-centred through guided self-discovery.
For verification and further clarification of the analysis task questions from 2A.
22 mins
2A. Self-discovery: Learners analyse and discuss the bits of reported speech from stage 1 based on some guiding questions. They try to notice the patterns and decide which ‘type’ of reported speech each one is (i.e., direct speech, traditional ‘grammar book’ reported speech, summarization, or constructed dialogue).

  • Interaction pattern: Closed pairs.
  • Classroom aids: worksheets from Stage 1, worksheet with guided questions to facilitate self-discovery.
  • Time: 5-minute time limit will be given, but this is flexible, as learners will be looking at reported speech in a way that they are not used to and have not really worked with in the past, if they need more time, I am very willing to cater to this need. This stage will probably take, realistically, about 8 minutes.

2B. Feedback to self-discovery: T asks questions and guides discussion about the target language that learners analysed in 2A. In addition to the 7 questions on the worksheet in 2A, T will also:

  • ask why present continuous is used with the reporting verbs in C and D
  • mention these are examples spoken by Americans
  • clarify ‘to whine’ if needbe, mention ‘moan’ and the possibililty of other verbs that we will look at in future lessons
  • warn learners about possible unnaturalness if they attempt to use ‘to be like’
  • ask what word can replace ‘how’ in D
  • Interaction pattern: T-learners lockstep
  • Classroom aids: whiteboard (see Board 1), board pens, worksheet from 2A.
  • Time: 13-15 minutes (Note: If learners seem clear about the language and we do not need to spend 13-15 minutes on this stage, we will move on to stage 3 earlier.)

Stage 3
Aims:

For learners to help each other in the viewing of part of a video.
For learners to hear and view a segment of video and report what the characters say/talk about to a partner.
To simulate real-life when a person may miss a segment of a film, TV show, conversation, etc., and need to be told what was said to ‘catch up’.
25 mins
Stage 3 is a sequence of alternating two video stages with two reporting stages. Simultaneously, learners will be doing prediction tasks for what they will hear reported.

Lead-in: T shows Seinfeld visual. Quickly tells learners it is an American television comedy, and they will watch small segments and report to each other what the characters talk about.

3A. DVD Stage 1: Learners are split into two groups. One group stays in the classroom, the other group goes out into the hallway.

The group in the classroom watch a short segment from a video. They can take notes if they want. We will watch the segment a second time to help weaker learners and make sure everyone is comfortable with the material. They will have a chance to think about, with a partner, how they want to report the dialogue from the video.

Meanwhile, the group in the hallway has a sheet with prediction questions to prepare them to here the report from their peer in 3B.

  • Interaction pattern: 2 groups; group 1 in DVD-learner dynamic; group 2 works as a group to do prediction task
  • Classroom aids: DVD, TV, prediction task 1 worksheet. Seinfeld, ‘The Revenge’, from 1.06 to 1.29; and 3.05 to 3.31.
  • Time: 9 minutes

3B. Reporting Stage 1: The hallway group comes back into the room and pair up with someone who has seen the video segment. The viewer reports to the non-viewer what was said in the segment. This will give the non-viewer the information needed to watch the next segment (See 5C). For feedback, T will ask 1 listener about their partner’s reporting.

  • Interaction pattern: closed pairs
  • Classroom aids: sheet of notes (optional)
  • Time: 4 minutes

3C. DVD Stage 2:
The original hallway group (from 3A) now stays in the classroom and watches the next video segment, taking notes if needed, watching a second time if needed; preparing to report what they have heard. Meanwhile, the original video group (from 3A) goes into the hallway and has a sheet with prediction questions to prepare them to here the report from their peer in 3D.

  • Interaction pattern: 2 groups; group 2 in dvd-learner dynamic; group 1 works as a group to do prediction task
  • Classroom aids: DVD, TV, remote, prediction task 2 worksheet, Seinfeld, ‘The Revenge’, from 5.05 to 6.37.
  • Time: 9 minutes

3D. Reporting Stage 2: The hallway group comes back into the room and each learner in that group pairs up with someone who has seen the video segment. The viewer reports to the non-viewer what was said in the segment. (Note: Learners will work with a different partner than in 3B.) For feedback, T will ask 1 listener about their partner’s reporting, time allowing.

  • Interaction pattern: closed pairs
  • Classroom aids: sheet of notes (optional)
  • Time: 3 minutes

Stage 4
Aims:

To help learners relate the target language to their own life.
To give learners freer speaking practice.
6 mins
4A. (optional based on time) Learners think about a time when they got advice for some sort of life change. T refers learners back to life change possibilities from scene setting brainstorm before stage 1 (see timetable fit)

  • Interaction pattern: learners think alone
  • Classroom aids: none
  • Time: 1 minute

4B. Personalized free communicative task: reporting a time when learners got advise for some sort of life change. Learners take turns. If time allows, they can report more than one experience.

  • Interaction pattern: closed pairs
  • Classroom aids: none; T has paper and pen for correction notes.
  • Time: 4 minutes

Stage 5
Aims:

To reactivate learner’s focus on what they did in the lesson.
To encourage learner autonomy with homework tasks.
1 mins
5A. (Wrap-up/)Wind down stage:

(If time: T quickly elicits what learners did in the lesson today.)

T gives out summary sheet and homework task.

  • Interaction pattern: T-learners (lockstep)
  • Classroom aids: homework worksheets
  • Time: 1 minutes

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