authentic literary text with advanced learners
The general conclusion I have drawn from my research into
the teaching of the reading skill, and more specifically the
use of literature in developing this, is that I should be
attempting to use more authentic materials in the classroom.
On the surface, this statement sounds facile but the reading
I have done has also shown me how I should be using the materials
and which factors need to be considered in their treatment.
When I use literature in future classes, I will take into
account the following points.
Discussing reading preferences and difficulties more with
2) In the selection of texts, noting my own purpose in reading
and my instinctive reactions to the materials.
3) Allowing the text itself to dictate the type of tasks and
activities to emerge from it. By thinking about the text itself
and my response as a native speaker, the tasks should maintain
4) Being very clear in my own mind about the aim of the lesson.
Asking myself if it is to develop reading fluency, to focus
on language features or to integrate the reading with another
5) Thinking very carefully about whether questions are truly
checking the learners' comprehension of what they have read
and whether they lead to "real" response.
6) Allowing sufficient time in the lesson plan for learner
response and discussion through group and pair work.
7) Assisting learners to develop inferring strategies.
8) Raising learners' awareness of how such strategies can
be transferred to other texts and be used in other situations.
9) Bearing in mind Widdowson's advice regarding restriction
of intake rather than of exposure, and thinking of ways in
which I can assist the learners to offer authentic responses
and to complete tasks successfully.
10) Ensuring that where the reading skill is integrated with
another skill, that this integration approximates as closely
as possible to what the native reader might do with the text.
F. (Times Education Supplement, 09.07.82): "Quiver full
of darts" - on reading for learning in the Secondary
school. (quoted in Whitaker, 1983)
R. (ELT Journal, Vol. 40/2, Oxford University Press, April,
1986): Can stylistic analysis help the EFL learner to read
F. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1981): Developing
Reading Skills. A practical guide to reading comprehension
G. (ELT Journal, Vol. 50/1, Oxford University Press, January,
1986): Using figurative language to expand students' vocabulary.
M. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991): Discourse
Analysis for Language Teachers.
J. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1978): Communicative
D. (London, Longman Group Ltd., 1991): Language Teaching Methodology.
J.C. (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990); The Language
R. & (ELT Journal, Vol. 37/1, Oxford University Widdowson,
H.G. Press, January, 1983): Talking Shop: H.G. Widdowson on
literature and ELT.
K. (Reading Research Quarterly 16:32/71, 1980): Toward an
interactive-compensatory model of Individual differences in
the development of reading fluency. (quoted in Nunan, 1991).
H.G. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1978): Teaching Language
R. (ELT Journal, Vol. 40/, January, 1986): "Top Ten"
principles for teaching reading.
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