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Applying Discourse Analysis in the Classroom with a Specific
Focus on Teaching Discourse Markers
by Ceri Millward

- Lesson plan 2

Time Interaction. Procedure Aims
  Warmer Give out Questionnaire-find out what films stus have seen.
Class discussion:
What are the main categories for the Oscars? Who won what?
*Save time for task 8.

*Introduce thesubject of film and the Oscars.
5 mins Stage 1
Task 1
Video.
T. monitor
F/B Whole class
Watch trailer (from the Oscars) for the film 'Chicago'.
From the trailer what type of film do you think it is?
Would this trailer make you want to see the film?
What film? (open class)
CHICAGO-what type? Ideas?(open class - 3mins)
Has anyone seen it?
If not do these clips make them want to see the film?
What do they think it's about?
*Create interest in the subject and motivate students.

*Activate stus schema of the film world and their knowledge of the film 'Chicago'.

*Develop gist listening skill
5 mins Stage 2
Task 2
T. monitor
F/B Whole class
Jumbled text.
Closed pairs - put the text in the correct order (3 mins)
Check order -why?
What made the students put text in that order?
Coherence (revision from previous class- 2 mins)
Give out text in Web page format (Handout 1)
*Intro text/ stus think about Coherent Structures, which is revision from the first class of the lesson.
8 mins Stage 3
Task 3
T. monitor
F/B Whole class

Is the text positive or negative? (Answer-both)
What does the writer think is positive & negative about the film?

Positive: Songs, Money, Cast -able to sing n dance

Negative: Theatrical, Not sex,
Uninventive camera work

Discuss ideas. How does the writer contrast these negative and positive ideas? Use example sentence to aid stus if necessary*.

*Developing the skill of reading for information.

*Guides students to discover-the way the author has organised the information using discourse markers & other cohesive devises
7 mins Stage 4
Task 4
T. monitor
F/B Whole class
We have talked about Coherence and Cohesion-linking words.
Put example sentence on board *Overall, Marshall's 'Chicago' seems destined to succeed, though there are problems.

Now find as many linkers in the text as you can (there are 11 different ones).
Closed pairs 6 mins.
Elicit / give the 11 linkers that are in the text.( 1min)

However, though, but, and, yet, therefore, as a result, so, Nonetheless, as well as, overall -have cards to put on board as the linkers are elicited (cards 1).
*Inductive exercise so that stus realise the purpose of linkers through context.

*Guided discovery - students are able to notice the target language in context.
*Use cards for quick F/B.
15 mins Stage 5
Task 5
T. monitor F/B
Whole class
Task 6
T. monitor F/B

After identifying the linkers the students use the context to infer their meaning and categorise them - putting them into a meaning table - handout 2. ( closed pairs 5 mins)

At the end of activity give each stu a card.
Check ideas-stus put card on board in correct column.So does that mean that the linkers in each category are interchangeable? Why not? Elicit subtle difference in meaning and grammar differences
Explain differences in the positioning of certain discourse markers. Stus look at linkers in context and put them into a table according to their positioning and function in the sentences. ( closed pairs 5 mins - handout 3)Type 1 -joins clauses and usually in middle of sentenceType 2 - joins clauses & can go in middle or endType 3 - Joins sentences & normally goes at the beginning of the sentence.Use cards again for feedback.

*Infer meaning from context and categorise them into a useful table, which they will have as a reference.

*Ensure stus understand the differences in usage between different linkers, clarifying- meaning, form and appropriacy.

*Use cards to make F/B quicker, get the stus moving and also so that we can all see the table & correct it on the board.
2 mins
flexible
Record stage
Whole class
Check ideas and clarify form, appropriacy and meaning by correcting mistakes and also giving out written record for stus to study at home and use for homework task (handout 4) *Clarify meaning, form appropriacy.

*Stus have written record to revise at home.
8 mins
flexible
Stage 6
Task 7
T. monitor F/B
Whole class
Stus have cards of sentences and photographs from the story of 'Chicago' - (Cards 2) They need to link the sentences and photos, using linkers from the text.Micro teach- correcting stus sentencesElicit sample sentences and deal with any language problems that might have arisen (during monitoring). *Language consolidation. I can evaluate the stus understanding of the target language.
10 mins Stage 7
Task 8T.
monitor
F/B
Whole class
Show Web page of Internet site where review will be posted.You are going to write a review for homework using discourse markers.Ask stus-what films have they seen this year?Divide in pairs or groups - brainstorm ideas about your film -positive and negative ideas. (5 mins)Look at ideas-elicit /suggest discourse markers to link or contrast their ideas. *Stus think about review content/ structure & linkers.

*Consolidation andGuidance for the use of linkers.

*Preparation for review/ homework.

*Integrated speaking practice.
Homework. Write a short review on the film you have been discussing, which we will look at in class and later post on < http//:www.uk.imdb.com/CommentsShow > internet site. *Give an audience/purpose for the written work.

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