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Applying Discourse Analysis in the
Classroom with a Specific Focus
on Teaching Discourse Markers
by Ceri Millward

- Lesson plan 3


- used in the first of the three-part lesson
ie. before this lesson

Word or expression Definition of word/expression
highlighted in black.

I love going to see Sam play the piano because he plays some great tunes.

The would-be starlet is determined to become famous one day.

He is infamous for not arriving on time.

When I read the headlines of the newspaper I realised that America had declared war on Iraq.

She was not the most popular actress but she was determined to steal the limelight from her co-star.

When we saw how well she performed we realised that she was destined to succeed.

Most of the old western films were criticised for their uninventive camerawork.

Most people thought that he was not a very good director, as he was famous for his oppressive close-ups.

When the famous lawyer agreed to take on his case, he knew he would not have to go to prison.

Good music.

Someone who is famous/ a star.

To be famous for doing something-usually negative.

The large print in a newspaper that gives you the important information.

To attract or take away attention from someone else.

To be sure of someone's success.

To make films/use a camera without using imagination.

In films or photographs - when a photograph has been taken very close to the subject.

To defend someone in a court of law.


Handout 1


Tick all the films that you have seen from the list below and put a star next to the film you liked best.

The Lord of the Rings.


The Hours.



The Pianist.

Gangs of New York.

Far from Heaven.

Talk to Her (Spanish)



El Crimen del Padre Amaro (Mexican).

The Man without a Past (Finnish).

About Schmidt.

Road to Perdition.

Saving Grace.

Harry Potter.

Y Tu Mama Tambien.

*If you have not seen any of the above films write the last film that you saw below.


Reading text

Chicago materials 1

Download this in pdf format

Handout 2



Put these linkers in the correct box according to their meaning:

Overall, though, so, but, as well as, however, and, nonetheless, yet, therefore, as a result.

A.) To draw attention to the fact that something is caused by or is the result of something else.
B.) Emphasise the fact that a second point contrasts with the first or highlights contrast of surprising facts.
C.) To generalise about a subject or give a general summary of the text.
D.) Used to add information or argument to what has already been said.

Handout 3


Put the linkers below in the correct column:

However, though, but, as well as, nonetheless, so, as a result, and, therefore, overall.

Links clauses - usually comes between clauses/in the middle of a sentence

Type 1

Links clauses - can come between clauses or at beginning of a sentence.

Type 2

Links sentences -usually at the beginning of a sentence.

Type 3







Handout 4

Linkers -Meaning and Grammar


It is important to be aware that although some linkers have similar meanings they may not be interchangeable within a text- different linkers are usually found in different positions in a sentence. The positioning of linkers can be put into three categories:

Type 1 - Linkers that usually join two clauses together and are found in the middle of a sentence/ go between two clauses.

Type 2 - Linkers that join two clauses together and can go at the beginning of a sentence or at the end.

Type 3 - Linkers that link ideas between two sentences or paragraphs and are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence.


Balancing contrasting points:
Yet, although, but.
These linkers are used to emphasise a contrast between facts that are surprising but do not contradict each other.

Although my wife prefers the seaside, I like spending my holidays in the mountains. (type 2).
He seemed disappointed with his new house, although he was happy to have a place of his own. (Type 2)
He seemed disappointed with his new house. Yet he was happy to have a place of his own at last. ( more formal)
He seemed disappointed with his new house but he was happy to have a place of his own. (Type 1)

Emphasising contrast or counter-argument:
However, nonetheless, but, yet.
These linkers emphasise the fact that the second point contrasts with the first.

'Nonetheless' and 'yet' are not used as often as the others and are generally used in written contexts.
Our school came last in the athletics competition. However we did have one success, with John's record in the long jump. (Type 3)
…cannot agree with colonialism. Nonetheless some people believe that the British did do some good in…( Type 3/ formal)
He says he's a socialist but he owns three houses and drives a Ferrari. ( less formal)

Overall -other examples; in general, on the whole.
These linkers are used when the speaker/writer wants to generalise about a subject. 'Overall' can also be used to introduce a short summary of a text.

Overall, we think that his work is satisfactory (type 3)

As well as, and.
These linkers can be used to add information, or argument, to what has already been said.

As well as food, the peasants urgently need medical supplies. (Type 2)
The peasants urgently need food as well as medical supplies.
The peasants urgently need food and medical supplies. (Type 1)

Cause and Result
Therefore, so, as a result.

These linkers show that what is said is a result of /or follows logically from what was said before. 'So' is less formal and is used more frequently than the others. In some spoken contexts 'so' can have a different meaning. 'Therefore' and 'as a result' are more formal and are usually only found in written texts.

I felt very ill so I didn't go to work. ( type 2)
….her parents insisted. Therefore she was unable to avoid a marriage of….(type 3)
….her husband died. As a result she was accused of murder and…..(type 3/more formal)

For stage 6 - pics & cards

Chicago materials 2

Download this in pdf format

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