-Meaning and Grammar
is important to be aware that although some linkers
have similar meanings they may not be interchangeable
within a text- different linkers are usually found
in different positions in a sentence. The positioning
of linkers can be put into three categories:
1 - Linkers that usually join two clauses together
and are found in the middle of a sentence/ go between
Type 2 - Linkers that join two clauses together and
can go at the beginning of a sentence or at the end.
Type 3 - Linkers that link ideas between two sentences
or paragraphs and are usually placed at the beginning
of a sentence.
Balancing contrasting points:
Yet, although, but.
These linkers are used to emphasise a contrast between
facts that are surprising but do not contradict each
my wife prefers the seaside, I like spending my holidays
in the mountains. (type 2).
He seemed disappointed with his new house, although
he was happy to have a place of his own. (Type 2)
He seemed disappointed with his new house. Yet he
was happy to have a place of his own at last. ( more
He seemed disappointed with his new house but he was
happy to have a place of his own. (Type 1)
contrast or counter-argument:
However, nonetheless, but, yet.
These linkers emphasise the fact that the second point
contrasts with the first.
and 'yet' are not used as often as the others and
are generally used in written contexts.
Our school came last in the athletics competition.
However we did have one success, with John's record
in the long jump. (Type 3)
cannot agree with colonialism. Nonetheless some
people believe that the British did do some good in
Type 3/ formal)
He says he's a socialist but he owns three houses
and drives a Ferrari. ( less formal)
Overall -other examples; in general, on the whole.
These linkers are used when the speaker/writer wants
to generalise about a subject. 'Overall' can also
be used to introduce a short summary of a text.
we think that his work is satisfactory (type 3)
As well as, and.
These linkers can be used to add information, or argument,
to what has already been said.
well as food, the peasants urgently need medical supplies.
The peasants urgently need food as well as medical
The peasants urgently need food and medical supplies.
Therefore, so, as a result.
linkers show that what is said is a result of /or
follows logically from what was said before. 'So'
is less formal and is used more frequently than the
others. In some spoken contexts 'so' can have a different
meaning. 'Therefore' and 'as a result' are more formal
and are usually only found in written texts.
felt very ill so I didn't go to work. ( type 2)
.her parents insisted. Therefore she was unable
to avoid a marriage of
.her husband died. As a result she was accused
of murder and
..(type 3/more formal)