attitudes by Jane Herbertson
grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be
conveyed": Wilkins (1). This reflects a change
of attitude towards the role of lexis. Sökmen (p239) likens it to
a pendulum, comparing the importance of lexis within the Grammar Translation
approach (where it was explicitly taught) to the Communication Approach
(where it was incidental). She suggests this pendulum has swung back today
to the middle ground, being taught both explicitly and implicitly. Nunan
(p117) claims it was neglected by Audio-linguists (during the middle of
the last century), citing Hockett (1958) "vocabulary was the easiest
aspect of a second language to learn and that it hardly required formal
attention in the classroom".
attempt to explain why I believe lexis is important, before considering
the general problems for adult learners of English. I shall then discuss
the change in status of lexis and consider one particular approach available
to teachers. Finally, I intend to draw general and specific conclusions
about my current/future practice.
is Lexis Important?
"Vocabulary knowledge enables language use…"(2).
And thus communication. Without lexis we will fail to achieve our objectives
on occasions. If we enter a shop and want to buy something (which is not
visible) then, no matter how much grammar we employ, we will not succeed.
Even without the actual word, we can employ strategies to achieve our
end but these will generally involve lexis too. Lewis goes further, arguing
not only can lexical errors cause misunderstanding and incomprehension
but 'in rare cases even offence' (p16 (3)).
One cannot read or listen without a knowledge of vocabulary. How can one
appreciate the depth of meaning implied in discourse or become fluent
conversationalists if lexis is not involved?
"Lay people believe that knowing a language means knowing words"
(4) and students come to classes with this in mind.
Lexis is important at every level. Students at low levels complain that
they do not have enough vocabulary. As they become more proficient, they
acknowledge that they have learnt much of the basic grammar (they will
meet nuances in the rules, they will need more opportunities to develop
their interlanguage but we are generally not teaching anything absolutely
novel). By contrast, with lexis there is always something new to be learnt
(even for native speakers) and students need to continue acquiring lexis
for a deeper understanding of the language.
General Problems for Adult Learners
'What's the word for….(L1 example given)? is typically heard in
language classes. If we can provide a direct translation (sometimes this
is not possible (5)), learners face other problems
with reception and/or production when meeting a lexical item, some of
Antonyms are not as straightforward as they first appear - an old book
and a new book may be the correct choice of opposites but what about an
old man and a new man
Collocation: roaring fire. Choosing the right combination conjures up
the right images between listener and speaker expressing certain nuances
of meaning which would be lost with say a large fire (although grammatically
Connotations: the famous murderer/notorious murderer - similar to collocational
use (ie the learner needs to learn the right partner) to convey an exact
False friends: existing between many languages - Spanish/English: actual
Homonyms: single word with several different meanings: row (a boat)/(stand
in a) row
items (6) (especially those which are relatively opaque: butter up)
Register: is the item appropriate in a certain context?
Synonyms: the pretty little dress/the pretty small dress
are concerned with knowledge of the lexical item and it can be seen that
to really know it, one has to go further than its form and surface meaning.
Even the sound of the word may be 'distorted' in its spoken form (7).
To this I would add a more general problem, that of exposure. Learners,
in their own countries, simply do not meet the lexical item enough to
learn it (8). My own experience of listening to Spanish radio daily (presenting
lexical items almost repetitively) provides plentiful opportunities for
noticing, guessing the word in context (or checking in the dictionary).
by Thornbury (p13) & Lewis (p16) - no references given in either case
2 Nation, 1993a, cited by Nation & Waring
3 Implementing the Lexical Approach
4 Dubin & Olshtain (1986:111-12) cited by O'Dell
5 eg el responsable in Spanish, using a noun (and article) in English
would be the person responsible ie responsible can have different usage
6 Moon includes compounds, phrasal verbs, idioms, fixed phrases and prefabs
7 eg contractions, weak forms, native speakers do not pronounce clearly
the ends of some words especially when there are consonant clusters
8 see 'General and Specific Conclusions about my Current/Future Practice'
change in status of lexis
The renewed interest in vocabulary is partly attributable to the growth
in corpus studies which have made it easier to analyse word patterns more
objectively. Results have revealed "the significance and the intricacy
of the links between words: for example, their strong clustering tendencies
and the patterns which are associated with them" (Moon p50). It was
during the 1980s that the status of vocabulary began to grow in importance,
manifested in research and the publication of coursebooks eg the Cobuild
English Course (1) with an explicit lexical syllabus.
Added to this has been the general trend in learner centred approaches
in the classroom (what does the learner want/need; how can the learner
help him/herself; increased responsibility for the learner in syllabus
The Lexical Approach (LA) is one approach which elevates the status of
vocabulary in the classroom. Lewis (2) objects
to aspects of more traditional approaches to second language learning,
some of which he claims are:
• a concentration on the sentence: one aspect of which was mastering
the structural frame and using lexis to fill the gaps. Focus on the sentence
is also associated with a bottom-up approach, rather than the more recent
view of looking at language in context (top-down processing).
• teachers have been too preoccupied with possible sentences rather
than what is actually said (probable utterances) - language corpora can
provide the requisite data
• regarding language learning as a linear process eg the past simple
is generally taught after the present simple has been 'mastered', thus
not allowing students earlier access to some of the most useful items
• teachers have been further preoccupied with production. Lewis
compares the acquisition of L2 with that of L1, advocating exposure to
vast quantities of lexically rich input without the pressure to produce
• there has been insufficient repetition (he criticises the P-P-P
model (3), where teachers using this methodology
have adopted an attitude that what is taught equates to what should be
quickly learnt - p51, Implementing the Lexical Approach)
• knowing the (sometimes confusing) grammar rules is not the same
as knowing how to use them
as the LA is concerned, he posits:
• that lexis not grammar lies at the basis of language and this
language "consists of chunks which, when combined, produce continuous
coherent text" (p7 Ibid.)
• first languages are learnt in chunks which take different forms
(4). He advocates learning the fully fixed expressions
as wholes and views the semi-fixed expressions as being the most useful
and significant (p11 Ibid.).
• chunks are stored in the brain as such. Therefore language should
not be broken down and then reassembled. When using language, these readymade
chunks are retrieved as wholes (Lewis claims that language is not infinite
creativity), resulting in reduced processing time for speaker/listener.
Chunking is an aid to fluency.
• chunking will help learners to be more natural with pronunciation
- encouraging the use of connected speech
• that lexis is a powerful generator of language and he cites the
use of delexicalised words (5) which should not
be dealt with grammatically
• the most frequent words encode the most frequent meanings and
the rest is largely padding
Putting the LA into practice - Lewis advocates:
• students need to be trained to notice chunks
• teachers should provide plentiful opportunities for noticing and
for noticing in different contexts thereby providing a greater depth of
knowledge of the lexical item
• the use of lexical notebooks as opposed to recording words. Additionally
learners should record lexis in context and in ways that are easily retrievable
• more use of modern, corpus-based dictionaries providing accurate,
reliable and useful English
Willis & Willis
2 Implementing the Lexical Approach
4 Chunks can be: words, compounds, polywords (by the way), collocations,
fixed expressions (many happy returns) or semi fixed expressions: that
sounds great (comprising frames: That's not as.. as you think and sentence
heads: What really surprised me was…)
5 eg take, have, put, get
Can one teach vocabulary? To answer this one should consider how much
vocabulary second language learners need. Estimates vary as to how many
words (and indeed what constitutes a 'word') an adult native speaker knows/uses.
Twenty thousand word families is the figure Nation & Waring (p7) cite,
claiming that students need "3,000 or so high frequency words"
(p11). After that they suggest helping students with strategies to comprehend/learn
the low frequency items.
Personal experience of learning Spanish included the discovery of the
power of reading in a second language. As a beginner I used graded readers,
employing the strategy of generally trying to guess unknown language from
context - I believe I got to know a lot of new lexis in this way plus
having frequent opportunities for noticing. I have actively encouraged
reading for my students whereby they borrow a graded reader from the in-house
library, read it, (taking a few notes of its main points) and we follow
this up with an exchange of views about our chosen books.
There is some debate about the benefits of learning vocabulary from context:
Nation & Waring (p11) "studies suggest that first language learners
learn most of their vocabulary in this way" (1).
Nagy (p71), though questioning this, attests to its importance (p64),
stating that words have different meanings in different contexts and adding
the benefit of acquiring other vocabulary from the context (apart from
explicit instruction). In my experience, giving a definition can be problematic
(although for lower levels it may be sufficient) leading to a shallow
knowledge of the item in question. To check understanding, I usually ask
students to write a sentence indicating the meaning of the said item.
With regard to providing more noticing opportunities, when learners are
involved in a listening task, I write vocabulary from the text on the
board, and encourage students to listen for it, guessing its meaning from
context. Any occasion they have for seeing/hearing English in context
will provide further occasions for noticing. This noticing process is
believed to be vital in getting to know a word (beginning with recognition,
proceeding through tentative production until the item is stored in the
long term memory when it is believed students will have the capacity to
use it automatically). As well as providing chances to notice lexis in
class we should encourage students to watch films, use the internet etc.
Chatting to students, outside of a particular language focus in class,
will provide further opportunities.
Clearly, in noting new lexical items, we have to take a practical view:
what is necessary for students to know at the moment (the proficiency
level of the student will also determine to what extent they want/need
to know a word and their own personal suggestions). Annotating all aspects
of the item (2) would be time-consuming and possibly
Some areas I currently focus on:
• record a word's family members (encourage + discourage + encouragement
• keyword strategies (3) - students make
a note of typical word partners: sign a contract, one-year contract etc
(can be adapted for more general areas of English). However, I have used
this technique inadequately, expecting rapid production. This has not
happened, as I have not given learners the necessary opportunities for
noticing, re-noticing and converting the input into intake.
I mentioned (4) that students should have more
time to get to know the item. Lewis' suggestions are pertinent ie training
students how to recognize chunks: they should return to the used texts,
highlighting and recording any patterns they find. This will help to raise
their awareness of the nature of lexical items. After doing this in class,
students should be encouraged to look for patterns in their reading (guiding
them towards autonomy).
Many authorities mention the primacy of encountering a word (expression)
on at least seven occasions before it becomes part of our permanent mental
store. Recycling lexis in class is not difficult, though takes some organisation
by the teacher. Some of the best ways are class lexical cards: students
note down an item they like, need and we put this into the store. These
items are recycled during subsequent classes. This can be very interactive
and student-centred if the items are posted around the room - students
have to move around, changing partners to check definitions. Games such
as bingo, noughts and crosses, dominoes and pelmanism are also fun. (They
are easy to prepare and can be personalised for the group or published
versions of some of these games exist.) Acting the phrase is another aid
to memorising the item eg sign the contract, get the sack, go on strike.
One other way of helping students increase their mental lexicon which
I will experiment with is noticing (and highlighting) lexical sets. For
example students can search for all words connected with particular areas
in a text. Another benefit of this is that it will give them vital clues
in organising their own texts.
I have already referred to the role of lexis and how it is inter-related
with speaking, listening and reading. To help students with writing, course
books are useful providing set phrases which learners can use as a model.
Ready for First Certificate (p10) is a good example. I have adapted this
for pre-intermediate students, whose standard of writing starts to show
an improvement by copying some of these multiword items eg Thanks for
your last letter, I´m looking forward to hearing from you. It is
unnecessary to break down and analyse the grammar of these phrases, though
students will begin to see the generative nature of such phrases.
My Spanish students are also preoccupied with prepositions and here too,
the best way is to make learners aware of the way they occur with other
words eg go home, on business, in the morning. If approached this way,
students do not have to think of complicated systematic rules of either
prepositions or inclusion of articles.
Lexis: changing attitudes in the classroom: involves raising the status
of lexis and changing the traditional attitudes/approaches towards it
by both teachers and learners (one of which has been to treat it as a
means to an end rather than an end in itself ie pre-teaching it as a way
into a text, then using the text to focus on language skills/language
systems - rather than exploiting the lexical item). Teachers ought to
consider adding a lexical perspective to their teaching. As Lewis points
out "implementing the LA does not mean ignoring everything we have
done before….it does… provide a practical tool….in an
overall strategy based on principled eclecticism." (Implementing
the Lexical Approach, p141)
1 Sternberg, 1987
2 see suggestions in 'General Problems For Adult Learners' (above)
3 Wilberg & Lewis (pages 57-76)
4 above 'My Choice of Lexis'
Lewis, M. 1997. Implementing the Lexical Approach. LTP
McCarthy, M. 2001. Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge
Moon, R. Vocabulary Connections: multi word items in English. (Vocabulary
Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy 1997: Ed Schmitt, N. & McCarthy,
M., Cambridge University Press)
Nagy, W. On the role of context in first- and second-language vocabulary
learning. . (Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy 1997: Ed
Schmitt, N. & McCarthy, M., Cambridge University Press)
Nation, P. & Waring, R. Vocabulary size, text coverage and word lists.
(Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy 1997: Ed Schmitt, N.
& McCarthy, M., Cambridge University Press)
Nunan, D. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology. Prentice Hall
O'Dell, F. Incorporating vocabulary into the syllabus. (Vocabulary Description,
Acquisition and Pedagogy 1997: Ed Schmitt, N. & McCarthy, M., Cambridge
Sökmen A. J. Current trends in teaching second language vocabulary.
(Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy 1997: Ed Schmitt, N.
& McCarthy, M., Cambridge University Press)
Thornbury, S. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Longman
Cited by other authors
Dubin, F. & Olshtain, E. 1986. Course Design. Cambridge: CUP
C. 1958. A Course in Linguistics. New York: Macmillan
M. 1992b. English idioms in use. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses
I. S. P. 1977. The combining arrangement: some techniques. The Modern
Language Journal 61 (3): 89-94. Reprinted in English Teaching Forum 17
(1) (1979): 12-16, 20
Sternberg, R.J. 1987. Most vocabulary is learned from context. In M. G.
McKeown & M.E. Curtis (Eds.) The Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition:
89-105. Hillsdale. NJ:Erlbaum
Norris, R. 2001. Ready for First Certificate. Macmillan Heinemann
Wilberg, P. & Lewis, M. Business English. LTP
Willis J. & Willis D. 1987. Cobuild English Course. Cobuild
from Wales has been teaching for 7 years - 5 in Spain and 2
in Poland. She currently works at the British Council, Madrid.
Level Upper Intermediate
1. To direct students to noticing lexical items as chunks of language
2. To sensitise students to the grammar/usage of multi words (Stage 4)
3. To introduce students to a lexical set connected to money (Stage 2)
1. To develop students' reading sub-skills to extract implicit information
2. To give students the opportunity to peer teach and learn from each
other (Stage 3)
3. To encourage students to use dictionaries (Stage 2)
4. To provide opportunities for students to meet and try to use some of
the new vocabulary - assisting the process of converting input to intake
- see rationale (Stages 2 - 7)
The students should be able to get the gist of the reading texts and may
be able to guess the meaning of some of the phrases from context or because
of their similarity to L1 (to get to the end of the month). They may know
parts of phrases such as a loan (in take out a loan) but they will probably
not be familiar with the whole phrase and producing these phrases is not
quite so straightforward - students are reluctant to employ delexicalised
verbs in this way.
The idea of using words together is not completely new to this group -
they have met the more common make/do phrases and dependent prepositions
depends on (but have problems with accurate production). They will not
be completely familiar with the nature of these phrases ie fixed: To make
(both) ends meet, semi-fixed: Money's a bit tight (little/scarce/short)
or more flexible and generative 'frames': I couldn't afford to………
The theme of managing/spending money is something students will be able
to comment on - as they will all have experienced this.
problems & solutions
1. Problem: (Stage 4)
Not knowing exactly what phrases will be chosen by students from their
texts when we focus on the usage of lexis as a whole class.
Ensure I have researched all the likely phrases beforehand.
2. Problem: (Stage 5)
Lexical consolidation - again dependent on what students select themselves.
It could be potentially confusing to present students with a huge number
of sentences - covering all possible options.
I have made the majority of the sentences open, students can choose how
to complete them - using the new lexis. If certain phrases are not chosen
by students at Stage 2, I will either:
- ask students NOT to tackle certain questions, looking at them in the
next class, after the homework has been done
- or give students the answer with a short explanation
3. Problem: (Stage 5)
Students may confuse some of the items in the consolidation gap fill eg
make a few cuts/put some money to one side
Discuss in feedback - however this problem will serve to show that we
have a choice of phrases at our disposal
Timing: the class is student centred and during the main lexical focus,
the stages may take longer than anticipated.
Stages 6/7 (relating to the role play) can be done after the observation.
Students' tiredness in a four hour class (with only break). The observation
takes place in the third hour.
Whilst I do not wish to radically change the structure of the class for
the observation, they will be having their break earlier today to accommodate
the observation and should start this part of the class with fresh impetus.
Ten students who meet once a week for four hours on a Saturday afternoon
and are very enthusiastic. The group bonded well from day one and have
continued to do so, as new students have joined. Most of the them are
fluent speakers and whilst launching themselves happily into nearly all
activities, speaking in L2 is the skill they especially enjoy practising.
The majority are university students and young professionals. About half
the group hope to do FC in December, whilst others plan to skip the exam,
going on to advanced level studies.
· A. is one of the strongest, using English regularly outside class.
Has an easy-going nature and happy to help other students or model language/tasks.
· A.M. is the least proficient. Lacks self confidence and is not
prepared to take risks in class.
· B. joined the group in March. Very confident and enthusiastic.
Whilst she has integrated into the group, she has missed about half the
classes and I do not know her as well as I know the others.
· C., confident, with a good level. Unafraid to challenge language
points -even if everyone else disagrees. Going to the UK soon to improve
· E. is also very strong and tries to use new vocabulary. Is currently
looking for a job abroad where she would be able to use her English.
· F. joined in March. Would probably lapse into L1 but is gradually
being 'trained' by his peers to use English all the time. Is confident,
relaxed with a good level. He is weakest in writing.
· I. joined in March and has missed some classes because of very
serious family problems. Enthusiastic - his knowledge of the world usually
compensates where his language skills fail.
· I. lacks some confidence but, despite this, she manages well
and is able to express personal opinions.
· M. takes L2 very seriously. She is extremely enthusiastic. Has
family in the US and is used to American expressions. Whilst she is a
strong student, she does make basic errors which are often due to transfer
· R. is a quiet student and very able. An all round good performer.
4 .00 - 4.15 pm Speaking activity
4.15 - 4.30 pm Check last week's homework
4.30 - 5.00 pm Grammar input: Ability (including verb 'phrases': capable
of…/succeed in…/manage to)
5.00 - 5.30 pm Listening: FCE task
5.30 - 6.00 pm Break
6.00 - 7.00 pm The lesson plan here
7.00 - 7.30 pm Homework preparation - report writing involving new vocabulary/or
in-house video utilizing 'money' lexis
7.30 - 7.45 pm Class diaries (students will feedback on today's class)
7.45 - 8.00 pm Game involving recycling of today's new lexis
unit we will begin work on today involves the topic of money (included
in the end of course exam), and, as a second vocabulary focus make and
do phrases. The second grammatical focus (which we will do next class
is on verbs followed by prepositions). The observation itself will focus
on everyday money vocabulary, which the students will select themselves
from a text.
We regularly do FC practice (see class profile) - our coursebook is Ready
for First Certificate (1) - hence the inclusion of some related activities
in the overall plan. The above is an outline of what is planned for this
4 hour block but parts may be changed depending on students' concentration
Today's language will be recycled during the next class. We will continue
to approach reading tasks, in particular, in this vein - giving the students
further noticing opportunities in the future.
At this level, students have covered much of the basic grammar and want/need
to increase their lexical knowledge. We have focussed on this during the
course but have not paid due attention to the acquisition of lexis as
readymade phrases and their importance. If students notice chunks more
(Main Aim 1: Stage 2), it will help not only production of these items
but also reception: likewise if students are more sensitive to how to
use these items, their overall skills will improve (Main Aim 2 : Stages
3, 4, 5). The course finishes next month - these aims will help equip
students with good strategies for autonomous study.
students avoid phrases with delexicalised verbs eg to put some money to
one side, preferring to use a concise verb - the latter is easier, but
the former will be needed for recognition purposes and also to sound more
the text chosen is not authentic (2), it provides a rich source of fairly
natural input embracing the lexical chain of money in an interesting context.
It gives students the chance to notice these phrases and to try to guess
their meaning. Some of the expressions are used more in spoken English
but can be employed for the writing assignment (3).
I have decided
not to give phrases to students that I want to focus on, allowing them
to pick the items themselves within the specified lexical chain - Stage
2 (this is what they will do as autonomous learners). Phrases may arise
which are not specifically money related and I will give guidance, as
necessary. I cannot predict their choices with complete certainty. To
give the reading more of a focus (rather than only for lexis extraction),
they will complete a handout with basic information (Stage 2), making
assumptions about the writer from implied comments (Stage 2). They will
then select/record phrases in pairs (4).
teaching (Stage 3) will highlight how they can help each other and by
the end of this stage they will have acquired approximately ten (5) new
items. These phrases will form the basis of Stage 4 - grammatical usage.
Here, too, further clarification of meaning will be provided if necessary
and if any errors with form occurred earlier these can be corrected. Students
have the whole article in their workbooks to explore the vocabulary further
They will then consolidate their knowledge with a gap fill (Stage 5) (6).
The role play (Stage 7) is something that students would not do out of
class - trying to borrow money from parents in L2. However, they may meet
this type of situation in the contexts of films etc. The reason for inclusion:
to give students a different opportunity to process the phrases (although
as this will be the first encounter with the language, it is unrealistic
to expect much of the target language) and, at this point in the four
hour class the students will welcome a lighter activity (7).
2. OHT (…….spend 40% of their income on etc…). Stage
3. Dictionaries. Stage 2
4. Reading text 'Money makes the world go round?': 5 extracts (x 2) enlarged
and cut up separately. Stage 2
5. Chart for students to complete information/phrases from reading texts
(handout 1). Stages 2/3
6. OHT for teacher to record SS' phrases. Stage 2/3
7. OHT pen (for writing SS' phrases). Stage 2/3
8. H/o 2 - Lexis consolidation. Stage 5
9. Role play cards. Stages 6/7
R. 2001. Macmillan Heinemann
2 An extract from Ready for First Certificate Workbook p98
outside the observation
3 if they work faster they will be encouraged to look further at the dictionary
4 definitions/write an example sentence using the target language
5 probably a manageable number for deeper processing - anymore might be
6 see problems/solutions (2) - above
7 see problems/solutions (4) with regard to timing
Statement on OHP (40% of….. etc)
Check SS know meaning of income/elicit ideas
Ask for SS ideas (if SS don't know what money is spent on, QUICKLY
supply food BRIEFLY Elicit SS reaction
SS discuss what they spend their money on
F/B & correction - from one member of group reporting highlights
activate SS interest in topic
To activate schema
To encourage use of appropriate vocabulary
To give SS opportunity to speak
To help SS with errors
Tell SS they're going to read short extracts about different peoples'
attitude to money
Put SS in pairs
As they read they have to fill in a chart - (H/o 1)
Explain how to complete: - top part with info about their 'person'
- underneath select 2 new phrases connected to money eg lend me money
- stressing that lend on its own in the text is largely meaningless-
give eg of a non-money phrase eg get rid of (it's a good use of combining
words to make a phrase but focus is on money phrases) - use dictionaries
to complete the meaning - DON'T complete the 'how to use' columnTell
SS they will be teaching the new expressions to other SS
Check instructions back with one student
Give each pair one reading extract between two
Give each pair two h/os for completion (with the same phrases)
SS carry out reading.
T helping & recording SS' phrases on OHT for later use
change group dynamics
To give a further reason for reading
To extract detailed info.
To introduce everyday 'money' lexical items
To encourage noticing of lexical items as chunks
To give practice in dictionary use
To encourage more attention/accuracy
To ensure SS know what is required
To encourage collaboration
To provide SS with a record of new lexis
Tell SS: - they will explain/teach the new expressions & meanings.
The SS in their group make a note of the new expressions on their
- When one St has passed on his/her information, next St continues
Check instructions back with one SS
Put SS into 2 groups - each SS has a different text A, B, C, D, ET
give opportunity to use today's lexical items
To share information
To check understanding
To change dynamics & give opportunity to learn from each other
on usage of expressions
Using OHT show SS all their expressions
Focus how expressions can be used, eliciting SS ideas:Eg take out
a loan (elicit whether it's flexible - can we put in a loan)- get
by (on + SOMETHING) (my salary)
Write the grammar/usage of the lexis on the Wb - corresponding to
the appropriate OHT phrase
To sum up this section: ask SS how we should record these items (NOT
WORDS)/and what we should look for/listen for ie words as phrases.
Elicit/tell SS : - record as multi-words (doesn't make much sense
alone) with their possible partners etc- use as multi-words 'I can't
afford to…….go out tonight' - saves processing time- read/listen
for them in this way (to make more sense of text)
ensure SS have the phrases recorded correctly
To sensitise SS to the grammar/usage of multi words
To encourage SS to think about the advantages of using lexis in this
T - SS
Give SS H/os to complete individually with new lexis.
In the majority of cases there is not one 'right' answer.
Compare suggested completion phrases with partners.
If SS have not selected (and worked) on items - select them out.
If time running short, tell SS we'll work on the 'missed' sentences
To give quiet period for reflection
To build SS confidence before whole class f/b
for role play
Divide SS into Mother/Father and Son/Daughter. If odd no. introduce
a grandparent role to work as a 3.
Put each role together.
Tell them to prepare for the role play:- thinking about attitudes
of speakers- reasons for asking, refusing, giving opinions- do they
need any special language - persuading, refusing
Check back the instructions
Give them their roleplay cards
T monitors/offers help
prepare for role play
To give St freer speaking practice
To ensure understanding
Regroup students - carry out role play
Teacher gives feedback
give SS chance to have fun
To give speaking practice with an opportunity to use new lexis
- Stage 1)
their income on?
1 (Stages 2/3)
to money/financial situation:
expressions RELATED TO 'MONEY':
to use them:
to record SS' phrases (Stages 2/4)
H/o 2 (Stage 5)
Try to complete the following sentences with today's new phrases
(you may not be able to do some of them).
With many of the sentences you may be able to choose from a few
of the new phrases - think about the meaning carefully.
He is unemployed so he finds it difficult to
When he wanted to buy a flat he went to the bank and
3. Every month, in order to pay for his trip to America, he
to …………………. …………………………………
Students often find that they………………………AND
When Baron Thyssen died his wife ……..……………….
6. When he was a little boy, his parents used to give him
I suppose that most politicians earn a decent salary - they
Some people are so rich. They.…………………………..
Electricity, gas, telephone - nearly every month I have to
play cards - laminated for students' use
Your son/daughter wants some money AGAIN.Try explaining that you're
not made of money.
You are a poor student, trying to persuade your mother/father to
give you some money.
Your grandson/daughter is asking your son/daughter for money AGAIN.Give
them your opinion
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