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Use of a Process-Writing inspired approach to prepare and motivate students to write a discursive composition, with particular attention to generating, selecting, ordering and organising ideas: effective use of linking devices: and paragraph planning - by Nicola Holmes

Lesson Plan to accompany the article - 3

Procedure

Stage 1: Warm stds up and expose them to linkers of addition, concession and cause and effect in context
Materials: Cut up opinions about Christmas
10 mins std-std

Stds walk round the classroom in pairs and discuss whether they agree or disagree with the statements on the walls and why (not)

Stage 2: Focus on the linkers, their function and whether they are used with noun (phrases) or with clauses
Materials: Handout with above opinions and concept questions
5 mins tch-std-std

Feedback, focusing on words in bold, tch asks what type of words they are and if stds already use any of them.
Stds look at the handout with the opinions they have just discussed and classify the linkers according to their meaning and use

Stage 3: Controlled practice of using the linkers
Materials: Handout with gapped sentences
8 mins stds-stds-tch

Feedback on the above
In pairs, ss look at the sentences and decide which linkers could go in each
gap
Feedback, with some focus on the difference between 'although' and 'however' if necessary.

Stage 4: Provide a purpose, motivation and readership for writing and initial focus on the question stds are to write about
Materials: Photo of and email from m friend Yvonne
3 mins tch-stds

Show stds photo of my friend Yvonne. I explain she is an RE teacher and discusses a lot of topical issues with her stds.
Hold up email requesting they write something about materialism in Spain.
Ask stds what kind of text they could write - elicit idea of fairly formal, semi-academic discursive composition.

Stage 5: Initial brainstorming of ideas and warm-up to role-play
Materials: Paper!
3 mins std

Assign roles - half the class have to agree that money is the only thing Spanish people value and half have to disagree - ss free-write their ideas until I say stop, not worrying about the grammatical accuracy of what they are writing

Stage: 6: Pooling and focusing of previous ideas generated, by comparing with partner and completing a spidergram
Materials: Handout with spidergram
5 mins stds-stds

Stds compare ideas with their partner and complete spidergram

Stage 7: Bringing together of ideas in agreement and disagreement with the statement about materialism in Spain and practice of using the linkers to help construct arguments to support opinions
Materials: Cut up linkers
5 mins stds-stds

Each std pairs up with a std who brainstormed ideas for the opposite opinion. New pairs then have a mini-debate arguing for the position on their role card and using the linkers as much as possible, holding them up forcefully when they use them.

Stage 8: Raise sstds' awareness of a possible structure for planning and paragraphing a discursive composition.
Materials: Whiteboard
3 mins tch-stds

Elicit from ss how many paragraphs they will write in their discursive - elicit basic paragraph plan to board.
Elicit some linkers of conclusion.

Paragraph 1 - lntroduction

Paragraph 2- Reasons for Agreeing with the Statement

Paragraph 3 - Reasons for Disagreeing with the Statement

Paragraph 4- Conclusion
In conclusion, To sum up.


Stage 9: Initial planning of discursive composition to write and eventually send to Yvonne's students
Materials: Handout with outline paragraph plan and questions to guide planning
10 mins stds-stds

In pairs ss work through the questions as far as possible, first of all listing and ordering the points to include in the main paragraphs of their compositions

Stage 10: Exchange of ideas and peer feedback on initial plans
Materials: Above plan partially completed
5 mins stds-stds

Stds change pairs and explain to their new partner their ideas so far
Then, if stds have started writing, they comment on each other's drafts, considering the questions at the bottom of the handout

Stage 11:Final feedback & clarification of homework task
Materials: Copies of Yvonne's e-mail with composition title highlighted

Explain that students are to complete their plans and write their first drafts for homework, leaving a margin for comments down one side of the page.
Give each stds a copy of Yvonne's email - explain it contains some spelling mistakes they might like to identify.

To part 4 of the lesson plan

To Nicola's article

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