Edna Aphek, seminar, Shanghai 18.6.2000
roads have been developing in parallel in the last fifty years
or so, the road of modern pedagogy and the road of computers.
In recent years they have started to meet and to converge.
at the "hot theories" in the "road of pedagogy"
one can see how well the computer fits and empowers these
theories and practices, for technology in itself is not and
should not be the end of education,but should serve as a means
to support and enhance educational values and pedagogic thinking.
what are these new theories both of learning and instruction?
are just a few:
The Theory of the Multiple Intelligences
The MI theory, which is has become quite popular in education,
is the brainchild of Howard Gardner.This theory breaks away
from the traditional notion that intelligence is a "single
general capacity possessed by every individual to a greater
or lesser degree."Gardner suggests that that there are
a number of intelligences, which give individuals their unique
composite. Gardner lists the following intelligences:
Musical, spatial, bodily,verbal, logical-mathematical, naturalistic,
mystic, interpersonal and intrapersonal.
Gardner and other educationalists ,recommend different learning
programs for different individuals, with different intelligences.
or the Emotional Intelligence theory was crystallized by Daniel
This theory claims that schooling the emotions is at least
as important as schooling the intellectual abilities and that
emotional intelligence is more important than the amount of
IQ an individual might possess.
Goleman calls for schools to develop a curriculum geared for
the literacy of the emotions.The EQ theory has great bearing
in the on-going struggle waged on school violence.
In Israel an entire city ,Tel Aviv, has accepted this challenge
and has introduced a program ( BINAT HALEV) geared to the
schooling of the emotions, into its entire educational system.
learning is a method of learning in groups
Learners in the group collaborate on an assignment , each
The final product is the group's product.
Cooperative learning frees teachers time as he/ she can work
with individuals or move from group to group. Learners get
an opportunity to participate in a variety of tasks and experiences:
to dialog, initiate, use their strong intelligence, make choices
and learn from one another.
Service learning combines working outside the school, usually
for the benefit of the community, with learning in the school.
Service learning lends meaning and context to the information
taught in school, and academic work gives a theoretical basis
for the work experienced outside the school.
In the Alon school in Israel, children 5-8 tutor seniors in
In the Ben Zvi middle school in Israel, learners combine their
school work with working in old age homes, hospitals,etc.
instruction,or interdisciplinary teaching and learning is
the organization of teaching and learning around themes and
not according to the disciplines.Thematic instruction breaks
away from the traditional division of the curriculum into
The theory maintains that in reality there is no departmentalization
between different areas, and that learning around themes is
more meaningful .
(It would be interesting to note here, that thematic teaching
and learning used to be the leading pedagogic theory in the
fifties in the Kibbutz schools in Israel. It was abandoned
later on for the sake of the more prevailing, then, departmentalized
view of learning and instruction.)
dialog approach is an eclectic theory, developed by Aphek
1996 and implemented in several Israeli schools and afternoon
The dialog approach views education as a five component complex
system.These five components;
1. content and information flow
2. learning skills
3. social and emotional skills
4. individual intelligence
must maintain an on-going dialog between them, in any educational
Learning is conducted in groups, service to the community
is an integral part of school's life , and the dialog is a
tool for communication between the different parties involved
in the educational activity.
Smart Schools principles for good education, developed by
David Perkins and colleagues at Harvard Project Zero, are
based on the two guiding beliefs:
is a consequence of thinking, and good thinking is learnable
by all students.This is opposed to the more traditional assumption
maintaining that thinking is a consequence of learning.
2.Learning should include deep understanding, which involves
the flexible,active use of knowledge.
principles provide a structure for schools with a vision of
a learning community that is steeped in thinking and deep
understanding, that engenders respect for all its members,
and that produces students ready to face the world as responsible,
thinking members of a diverse society.
the second part
the Shanghai Course article
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