Voice-Setting Phonology by Sarn Rich
T. and J. Marks 1992. The Pronunciation Book. Student-Centred
Activities for Pronunciation Work. Longman.
A. (ed.) 1991. Teaching English Pronunciation: A Book of Readings.
A. (ed.) 1992. Approaches to Pronunciation Teaching. MacMillan.
C. and 13. SeidLhofer 1994. Pronunciation. Oxford University
J. B. 1993. Clear Speech: Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension
Teachers Resource Book. Cambridge University Press.
S. 1990. Flying Colours. Heinemann.
B. 1964. Articulatory Settings. in In Honour of Daniel Jones.
London: Longmans, Green.
B. 1992. The English Voice. in Brown (1992)
R. H. and S. Evans 1995. Teaching Pronunciation Through Voice
Quality. ELT Journal 49/3:244-251
J. 1987. Teaching English Pronunciation. Longman.
C. Pronunciation. Oxford University Press. in Dalton and Seidlhofer
P. 1978. The Teaching of Pronunciation. Cambridge University
R. and L. Arthur 1987. Conversation. Oxford University Press.
J. D. 1973. Phonetics. Penguin.
P. 1991. English Phonetics and Phonology: A practical Course.
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L. 1993. Pronunciation in Action. Prentice Hall.
S. 1993. Having a Good Jaw. Voice-Setting Phonology. ELT Journal
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suggestions for teaching voice-setting phonology
Joanne Kenworthy suggests offering learners a questionnaire.
This could start learners thinking about how their own language
is sometimes mispronounced by non
-L1-speakers, and why, and move onto general thoughts about
pronunciation of L2 and other languages (1987).
2.* Another way to begin is with a recording of speakers of
various different languages. Learners identify them and then
discuss distinguishing features (Thornbury 1993:129).
3. This could accompany a discussion of intercultural differences
in body language and gestures (Nolasco and Arthur 1987:64-65).
the following activities are accompanied or followed by learners
noting specific differences between L1 and L2 voice-settings.
* In pairs learners read out brief autobiographies in their
own language but in an English accent (Taylor 1993:20-21).
5. Learners listen to contrasting recordings of L1 and L2
speakers performing the same task each in their own language.
6. Learners listen to recordings of L2, and other language
speakers, 'recorded from a distance or with overlaid foreground
noise, so that only suprasegmental features are audible' (Thornbury
1993:129-130). (In Prague I lived next door to a family the
general pattern of whose conversation I could hear through
the very thin wall between us. Specific sounds were inaudible,
but I think that as I learnt Czech, this daily experience
helped me develop a feel for the rhythms of the language.)
7. * Learners are presented with a list of 'bilingual minimal
pairs' i.e. pairs of very similar sounding words of L1 and
L2. The teacher (who must be able to read both languages)
reads out one of each pair at a time, and learners identify
the language (Bowen and Marks 1992:21).
8. * Learners watch a video extract with the sound turned
down, and identify the language spoken (L1 or L2) (Thornbury
Learners 'shadow read' a recorded dialogue or text, i.e. repeatedly
read aloud while listening until they can maintain the same
rhythm, intonation, stress and pronunciation as the original
(Nolasco and Arthur 1987:30).
10.* Learners watch a brief film extract dubbed from L2 into
L1 and dub it back into the original, lip-synching and using
correct accents (Thornbury 1993:130).
ii. Learners deliver nonsense speeches composed of words they
regard as typical of L2 (Laroy in Dalton and Seidlhofer 1994).
(In a similar way Charlie Chaplin in 'The Great Dictator'
repeatedly uses nonsense phrases like 'cheese and crackers'
to imitate a German accent.)
12. Drawing on drama training, Charlyn Wessels suggests beginning
with relaxation and posture and breathing exercises, 'face-loosening'
(widening, screwing up and stretching the face) and imitating
the shape of an L2 speaker's mouth video recorded in close
up, followed by rhythmic chants and choral poetry reading
'Taper and concave the tongue, draw it as a whole back into
the mouth so that the pointed tip presses against the edge
of the alveolar ridge; close the jaws, don't clench
them; still the lips; swallow to relax; now limber up, repeat
/t,d,n,l/ (Honikman 1964:285 in Dalton and Seidlhofer 1994:
14. * 'The teacher may.. .demonstrate that it is perfectly
possible to speak English with a pen-cap - or other light-weight
object placed lightly (not gripped) between the lips. Students
may then be encouraged to do the same, and should be reminded
that it is usual in colloquial English to use no greater degree
of openness than the thickness of a cigarette or pen-cap'
(Jenner 1992:43 in ibid:140).
A learner says a given phrase in the manner of a particular
feeling, which the other learners then identify (Taylor 1993:15-16).
16. Pairs act out dialogues, following identical scripts ways.
Other learners decide what the situation is
the characters (Nolasco and Arthur 1987:70-72).
17. Jones and Evans (1995) discuss these same ideas, but elaborate
on them, encouraging learners to isolate features of L2 voice-setting
associated with the identified feelings or situations, to
compare them with L1, and to draw hypotheses from their findings.
18. * Learners watch video clips with the sound turned down,
using paralinguistic clues (facial expressions, gestures...)
to decide who the characters are, their relationship. and
what they are communicating (Nolasco and Arthur 1987:58-61).
but interpreting them in different and identify the relationship
exploited or adapted in the following lesson plan.
the beginning of the article
the lesson plan
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