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Teaching Tips 84

Live 8
Take it down
It's in the content

Live 8 concert
Live 8

With the Live 8 concerts on Saturday & the G8 meeting in Scotland on Wednesday, it would be appropriate to have lesson around the events. There is a lot of material around on the internet & AOL are leaving the concert replays up for viewing for 12 days at:
http://music.channel.aol.com/live_8_concert/home
There are some straightforward texts at the Live8 website:
http://www.live8live.com/whatsitabout/index.shtml
And the Make Poverty History Website:
http://www.makepovertyhistory.org/whatwewant/aid.shtml

Here are a few lesson ideas - there is no explicit mention of level for each section so read on & decide for yourself which class can deal with which bits.

1. Intro
- Ask the stds - did you see any of the concerts? which groups did you like? general impressions?

2. Why the concerts
- Aims of the concerts? (pressure on world leaders for the G8 meetings? the difference between this day of concerts & Live Aid 20 years ago? involving everybody v charity.

3. Vocabulary - the stds brainstorm all words connected to 'Poverty' & 'Music'. Among 'Poverty' connected items you could introduce the following:

poverty - hunger - despair - charity - justice - disease - preventable - poverty-line - poverty-stricken - poverty trap - tom live hand to mouth - underprivileged -to scrape a living - destitute


4. Reading 1 - using Text 1- quotes from stars talking on stage about the event.
- Ask the stds if they know any of the speakers quoted. you could just use a few rather than all of the quotes.
- Ask the stds to read the quotes quickly & decide which refer to the day & which to the cause of eradicating poverty. Give them a time limit to speed them up.
- Stds compare ideas >> feedback - std responses to what is said.
- A language focus? you could look at the problem-solution approach that Bono uses.

5. Reading 2 - using Text 2 - the text from the Make Poverty history site which focuses on the UK. You could exploit the text in two sections; the first down to the end of 'In More Detail' & the second 'Maura's Story'.
- to get an overview of the text, blank out the titles of each section, put the titles on the board mixed up ie. not in the same order as in the the text, & ask the stds to read quickly & apply a different heading to each section.
- Stds compare >> feedback
- Give out the numbers & a time limit which speeds them up, avoiding them reading every word, & ask the stds to find what the numbers refer to.

50 billion - 0.7 - 2008 - 1.5 million - 10 billion - 700.000 - 30 - 94 billion - 8 million - 1970 - 35 - 2004 - 0.47 - 2013 - 45 million - 0.15 - 50-100 billion - 400 billion - 430.00

What do the following acronyms stand for: IFF - MDG

- Stds compare >> feedback, discussing the article as you go along.
- You could focus on the section about Maura Hassan. Ask them to read the section again compare ideas on the 'Maura's Story' & 'Where does aid fit in' sections.
- Feedback
- Language focus??

6. Speaking
- Roleplay - this could be a pro change person persuading one of the leaders to increase the aid for Africa.
- Discussion - could centre around the following:

http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/news/archives/2005
/07/03/what_the_papers_say.html
That view of celebrity-endorsed charitable works is not shared by all in the African press. “A pity Cinderella wasn’t invited to the party,” reads the headline of Edwin Naidu’s coruscating review of the Johannesburg Live 8 in South Africa’s Independent Online. “The concert conjured up the begging-bowl image of Africa with a lacklustre line-up,” he writes. Reflecting on the legacy of the 1985 Live Aid concerts, he says: “The major beneficiaries of Live Aid were not the starving in Ethiopia but the fat-cat rock stars who got fatter ... It is hard to take the likes of Bono seriously when his luxurious lifestyle is so far removed from the suffering of millions of Africans he and others claim to care about."

7. Writing
- for teenagers you could set up a letter writing task where they write to a friend in Africa, relating what is being attempted.
- another letter idea would be to write to one of the world leaders urging change, using the information they have read & talked about.

8. Project work - for teenagers, you could set up a project on the G8 meetings & Africa. lots of material on the net to use.

Text 1

Bono - "This is our moment, this is our time, this is our chance to stand up for what is right. We are not looking for charity, we are looking for justice.We cannot fix everything but the ones we can we must .Three thousand Africans, mostly children, die every day of a mosquito bite. We can fix that. Nine thousand people dying every day of a preventable, treatable disease like Aids. We have got the drugs. We can help them. Dirty water, death by dirty water. Well we can dig wells.You want to join us. Get out on the streets of Edinburgh and everywhere else. Eight of the most powerful men on earth are meeting in Gleneagles in Scotland. We have a message for them. This is your moment too. Make history by making poverty history."

Coldplay singer Chris Martin - "Can we take this opportunity on behalf of all the bands and on behalf of you people to say thank you to Bob Geldof. He is a hero of our time and he deserves all the credit he gets and people who are cynical are in our minds pretty stupid because this is important. Everyone knows that. I don't want to go on about it but thanks a lot Bob Geldof, or Sir Bob Geldof."

Keane singer Tom Chaplin - "Behind us is a huge list - this is the Live 8 list. If you are not on this list, please go to live8live.com and sign up because this is what we are here for today. It's about all of us coming together and making a huge change for the rest of the world."

Bob Geldof - "There are three billion people watching you right this moment. I want to say hello to Paris and Rome and Berlin and Tokyo and Toronto and Johannesburg and right this second, in 84 degrees in Philadelphia, one million people are on the streets, your brothers and sisters of this weekend of independence. Let's make this a weekend of inter-dependence."

Ms Dynamite - "People ask me why I wanted to be here and my answer to that question is how could I not be here? 50,000 people every single day are dying of poverty. I would bet my life that if 50,000 died here in the western world something would be done by this evening to make sure that didn't happen tomorrow. That bothers me. At the end of the day, we as a nation have robbed, killed, stolen and tortured the third world for centuries. If there is a debt to be paid, surely we are the ones that owe it."

Travis singer Fran Healy - "Twenty years ago Mr Bob Geldof had this crazy idea that we could all feed the world. Twenty years later the world is still hungry and there are eight men, eight white wealthy guys, sitting around - if G8 doubled aid, £50 million would go to Africa."

Annie Lennox - "We are here today to urge the leaders of the G8 summit to take action for the people of Africa and all the nations where poverty and despair are a way of life. The issues can no longer be ignored. We have brought them to the table. Everyone of us believes that this is a just and righteous cause. Together with focus and determination we can all begin to make poverty history."

Razorlight singer Johnny Borrell - "We are here to make poverty history and we have a chance, believe me. If we can make enough noise then we can make them listen so have a good time and whatever you do, make sure you make a lot of f****** noise."

Velvet Revolver singer Scott Weiland - "This is not just a rock show it is just a beautiful event for us all to come together. It's music and more."

Paul McCartney - "Everybody who's come along today has come for the right reason. We hope that the people, the heads of G8, are listening hard. They can't avoid this, they cannot have missed it and all you people who've come along for this message - we love you."

Text 2

From the Make Poverty History website:
http://www.makepovertyhistory.org/whatwewant/aid.shtml

More and better aid

Introduction

Poverty will not be eradicated without an immediate and major increase in international aid. Rich countries have promised to provide the extra money needed to meet the internationally agreed poverty reduction targets. This amounts to at least $50 billion per year and must be delivered now. Rich countries have also promised to provide 0.7% of their national income in aid and they must now make good on their commitment by setting a binding timetable to reach this target.

However, without far-reaching changes in how aid is delivered, it won't achieve maximum benefits. Aid needs to focus better on poor people's needs. This means more aid being spent on areas such as basic health care and education. It should no longer be conditional on recipients promising economic change like privatising or deregulating their services, cutting health and education spending, or opening up their markets. Aid should support poor countries' and communities' own plans and paths out of poverty.

Aid Works!

If the UK met the 0.7% target by 2008, an extra 1.5 million people could be lifted out of poverty that year.

Providing universal primary education would cost just $10 billion a year.

Young people who have completed primary education are less than half as likely to contract HIV as those missing an education. Universal primary education would prevent 700,000 cases of HIV each year, almost 30% of all new infections in this age group.

In More Detail

An immediate annual injection of at least $50 billion is needed per year to allow countries to make progress towards the MDGs. As much as $94 billion extra may be required if countries are to meet the targets in full. Without proper funding, 30,000 children will continue to die needlessly every day from causes associated with extreme poverty:

8 million lives could be saved every year if minimal healthcare was available in developing countries.
One woman dies every minute as a result of problems in pregnancy or childbirth. Of these, 99% are in developing countries.
A child dies every 15 seconds from water-related diseases.

The developed world has a responsibility to fund international development programmes. The UK previously committed itself to the 0.7% target (that 0.7% of its gross national income (GNI) would be spent on international development). The promise was made in 1970. Some 35 years later, we are still waiting for the promise to be kept.

In the 2004 Comprehensive Spending Review, the Chancellor committed to raising aid spending to 0.47% of GNI by 2007/08. That will mean a jump in aid of £1.5 billion by 2008. If growth continued at that rate the UK should finally reach its promised 0.7% target by 2013.

This new commitment is significant and welcome. Yet, by 2013, some 45 million people will be newly infected with HIV. Only half of Africa's children will complete primary school and one in six will die before their fifth birthday. With every month that passes without faster increases in aid, we drift further and further from achieving the MDGs.

Although UK aid is growing in volume, in historical terms it is not keeping pace with the leaps in British wealth. Britain gives a smaller proportion of its national wealth than it did in 1979, when 0.51% of British gross national income went on development assistance.

The UK can afford to reach 0.7% much sooner and in doing so would catch up with Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, all countries with economies significantly smaller than our own.

The UK is currently seeking support for a proposed 'International Finance Facility' (IFF). Gordon Brown has said that the facility could 'double the amount of development aid from $50 -100 billion per year... double development aid to help us halve poverty'. The government's proposal for an IFF shows that it recognises that the MDGs are currently out of reach. This admission must lead to an immediate and major increase in the volume and efficacy of international aid, with or without international agreement on the IFF.

The UK has already shown significant leadership on aid volume. It must make a firm commitment to reach the 0.7% target and to do so before 2013. It should also provide its fair share of the additional money needed now to meet the MDGs, estimated to be at least $50 billion each year. Doing these two things would put it in a prime position to persuade other countries to contribute more to international aid.

Maura's Story

Maura Hassan lives in Tabata, a poor area of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Although she has water pipes connected to her home, she is unable to get any water through them. Since the water supply to the area has been privatised, she has been receiving bills for water she hasn't used. Her last bill was for $400.

Maura is forced to buy water from a well dug by a private individual. Although this is much more expensive than piped water and she has no guarantee that it is safe to drink, she has no choice since the water connection to her house doesn't work. Other local families can't afford to buy any kind of water, and are forced to use the local shallow wells. People who bathe in them start to itch and those who drink from them need expensive medicines to treat their subsequent illnesses.

How does aid fit in?

Aid flows to Tanzania were made conditional on the government privatising the water system in Dar es Salaam. The move has increased water prices and made poor populations more vulnerable to water borne diseases like cholera.

The British government is heavily implicated in the deal. The water supply has been handed over to Biwater, the UK water multinational. The British taxpayer, through the Department for International Development, funded the pro-privatisation advertising campaign. A hostile Tanzanian public was subjected to a media campaign promoting the sell off, at a cost of £430,000.

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Take it down

Notetaking is an important listening & language skill for quite a few language learners. Younger ones may have to deal with lectures in English, while professionals may have to cope with conferences & meetings. And whether they take down notes in their own language or in English, we can help them by passing on different ways of organising their notetaking. Here are a couple of ways:

Mind Mapping: This consists of a central title & coming off this are the connected points mentioned, relating each point to all the other points.  They can be very visual & personal, requiring an active role in interpreting the points. Here's an example:Study skills mind map

For much more on this see 'Use Your Head' by Tony Buzan - an excellent study skills book for everyone.
From Amazon.com
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0139399755/developingteac0b From Amazon.co.uk:
http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0563537299/developingteache

The Cornell method: Divide your paper into two columns, the left one a couple of inches wide. As you listen, notes are taken in the right column. At the end go through the notes to see if any additions need to be made. Then in the left column, sum up each section with a few key words. Leave it a while & then covering up the right, look at the left points & recount what was written on the right. At the end uncover the right to see what you got right & what you missed. Nice for reviewing & retention.

Charting: At the top of your paper, mark out the headings of several columns that will be relevant to the discourse you are about to listen to. This is useful for chronologically given information.

Dates Places People Events Effect
         

Outlining: A more traditional way of taking notes that helps you keep track of related points through indentations as in the following example:

Study skills            
   - Organisation         
      - files
- notebooks
- notetaking
- mind maps
- linear
     
   - Reading         
     - skimming
- scanning
     

There are other ways & combinations are possible but each of the above might be useful on different occasions. In class present these to your students through different types of discourse & then ask them how they got on with them & if they will use them again. And then next time when asking for notetaking, think of an appropriate organisation & suggest they might like to use it.

The actual notetaking is only half of the equation, listening skills being the other half. The Tip 'High Speed Dictation' helps with the skill of listening out for the key information:
http://www.developingteachers.com/tips/pasttips8.htm
This is all about prominence & tone units, & there are a couple of Tips on these at:
http://www.developingteachers.com/phonology/groups_prominence.htm

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Content
It's in the content

The BBC Teaching English website has a series of radio programmes as MP3 downloads. Called 'Innovations in teaching - A six part radio series from the BBC World Service', the programmes try to answer the following questions - 'Are there some genuinely new ways of teaching language? Are there new technologies - e.g. the interactive white board - that have revolutionised how we learn and the way we teach? What innovative methodologies are of interest to the classroom teacher or educationalist working around the world?'.

There are six short programmes that look at innovation directions, interactive whiteboards, CLIL, speaking & technology & referencing. Do download the programmes & give them a listen.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/download/radio/innovations/innovations.shtml

Lovely material for teacher training courses as well.

Two of the programmes look at CLIL, which stands for 'Content and Language Integrated Learning', also referred to as 'content teaching', & is getting a very high profile these days. This is the teaching of a subject through a foreign language, for example in a non-English speaking country, learning about science, geography, history etc through English. As students are concentrating on the meaning, the content, they are developing their English.

It doesn't have to be a whole course in English, it could be part of a course, a module, a seminar on a particular topic. It is certainly making headway in some European countries with education authorities wanting to increase the level of English in schools. Clearly teachers not only have to be expert in their field to an extent but also be fairly fluent in English. A hard task. In some countries, language assistants are sent to work with normal teachers to develop this kind of project.

So how can we bring this idea into our classrooms, to have students learning about a topic through the medium of English? Here are a few ideas:

- teach your students about an area you are expert in. If you know a lot about something, why not use this as content. Find out if the students would be interested & then set about how you would go about teaching this with the methods & activities that you usually use for English. And if you are thinking that you are not expert in anything, you are wrong. There are lots of things you can pass on, from making biscuits to a sport you have been involved in (cricket!), to a book you have read to making a web page etc....many, many things.

- we are all from somewhere so have short slots on the countryyouarefrom Life & Culture. Get visuals & materials to get the content across. Students are usually interested in finding out about your country, the people & customs so integrate it into your course.

- get your students involved. Find out what they are expert in & get them to do presentations to the group, & include yourself as part of the learning group. Try to get everyone in the group to decide on an area & then help them out with ideas on where to get English materials, ways they could use to get the content over & then help them actually prepare by providing useful language & ideas for the content. This could easily be given classroom time & seen as a valuable project by all if set up well.

- organise content-based courses in your school. Get all teachers interested in being involved together & brainstorm different areas. Decide on a few that short courses could be centred around. An obvious one would be British/American/Irish etc Life & Culture. Others could be Modern English literature, a life & culture aspect - Education, The Media etc... The last one could be particularly interesting, bringing in radio, television, print media & the internet - masses of material. The courses could be six hours long & as they learn about the area, they develop their English. Your students will see the value & jump at the opportunity. And then you could see if any of your advanced students would like to give a short course, a business student could look at management theory, for example.....

- an extension of all this is to invite guests into your classes & schools. A great way to give your students exposure & learning.

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