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St Patrick's Day
Women's Day
Human Billboards

St Patrick's Day

March 17th

St Patrick

As St Patrick's Day is near, now is a good time to look at Ireland in some of our lessons. There is a lot of information on the net - see the links below to Ireland in general & also specifically to St Patrick, Ireland's patron saint.

Below is an abbreviated story of St. Patrick. It is in skeleton bullet point form to allow you to tell the story easier. It is best to memorise the story as this will make it more natural. Have a look at the article 'Effective Storytelling - a manual for beginners' - you'll find lots of tips on how to tell St Patrick's story. If you want more detail for the story check out the links below.

- St Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland.

- In Ireland, March 17th is a national holiday in honour of his memory.

- He is sometimes known as the Apostle of Ireland and is credited with bringing Christianity to the country.

- He was the son of a Roman officer who was stationed in Britain & he was brought up in a wealthy household.

- When he was 16 Patrick was carried off in a pirate's raid & taken to Ireland and sold as a slave to a chieftain called Milcho

- Milcho did not like Patrick, so he sent him off to Mount Slemish to look after pigs and be a swineherd. Life was very hard for Patrick on the mountain.

- One night he escaped and walked for 200 miles until he reached the sea.

- He found a ship sailing for Brittany & when he arrived there he went to Auxerre, where his Mother had some relatives.

- Patrick wanted to return to Ireland and convert the tyrannical Pagans there to Christianity.

- He entered the priesthood in Auxerre and spent several years studying.

- The Pope agreed to let Patrick go to Ireland and gave him the special title of "Patercuis", from the Latin pater civium, which means father of his country.

- Patrick set sail from Brittany in the summer of 432, and landed near Wicklow on the east coast of Ireland.

- He first went to Milcho's fort & converted him.

- Patrick then converted the rest of Ireland to Christianity.

- Patrick is famous for ridding Ireland of snakes, driving them into the sea. There are no snakes in Ireland and nowadays this is believed more the result of the island separating in the Ice Age.


St Patrick's links:

Lots of St Patrick's Day material

And everything Irish.

From How Stuff Works - How St Patrick's Day works.

Lots of ideas for the younger learner class

The history of the day from The History Channel

Printables, lesson plans, arts & crafts, historical backround etc

A short history & links.

Links about Ireland:

Back to the contents

To mark Women's Day - on 8th March, here is some material taken, with permission, from the United Nations Cyber School Bus website with ideas on how to use it. United Nations CyberSchoolBus web site

There is quite a lot of text - two different sections; the first talks of why we have Women's Day & the second how the Day came about. I have chosen to use the first orally & the second as a reading text. And perhaps you might like to shorten the second text & only use the first part, until the dotted line.

1. Introduction - rank the women in order of their contribution to women's right. Stds in pairs rank the women. Feedback.

2. Elicit what Women's Day is & when it falls & anything the stds might know about it. Some visuals on the board would help everyone focus.

3. Read the first text aloud - stds listen. Then they compare ideas on what they heard - maybe read again if requested.

4. Set the reading task - to identify what the given dates refer to as quickly as possible. Give out text & dates. Check & reading task.

5. Stds compare answers.

6. General feedback & discussion of the events as you work through the dates - picking up on reactions, anything surprising etc..

7. Vocabulary - stds in pairs/small groups underline vocabulary specifically related to Women's Day & protest. Encourage the stds to work meaning out from the context & have dictionaries on hand if they need to confirm their guesses. See below for a selection of related vocab from the text.

8. Feedback. You might also like to exploit the reading text for some grammar areas.

9. Discussion - could begin in small groups & then bring all together for a class discussion - see later for ideas on discussion points.

To a print friendly version


Rank the following women in order of their contribution to women's rights & be prepared to justify your decisions - Margaret Thatcher, Emilia Earhart, Mother Theresa, Princess Diana, Eva Peron, Madonna, .....put here some famous women from you country.


Why Women's Day?

Why dedicate a day exclusively to the celebration of the world's women?

The United Nations General Assembly, composed of delegates from every Member State, celebrates International Women's Day to recognize that peace and social progress require the active participation and equality of women, and to acknowledge the contribution of women to international peace and security.

For the women of the world, the Day is an occasion to review how far they have come in their struggle for equality, peace and development.

You might think that women's equality benefits mostly women, but every one-percentile growth in female secondary schooling results in a 0.3 percent growth in the economy. Yet girls are often kept from receiving education in the poorest countries that would best benefit from the economic growth.

Until the men and women work together to secure the rights and full potential of women, lasting solutions to the world's most serious social, economic and political problems are unlikely to be found.

In recent decades, much progress has been made. On a worldwide level, women's access to education and proper health care has increased; their participation in the paid labor force has grown; and legislation that promises equal opportunities for women and respect for their human rights has been adopted in many countries. The world now has an ever- growing number of women participating in society as policy-makers.

However, nowhere in the world can women claim to have all the same rights and opportunities as men.

The majority of the world's 1.3 billion absolute poor are women.

On average, women receive between 30 and 40 per cent less pay than men earn for the same work.

And everywhere, women continue to be victims of violence, with rape and domestic violence listed as significant causes of disability and death among women of reproductive age worldwide.

Dates task

Read the article quickly & decide what events the following dates refer to.

8 March 1857

March 1859

8 March 1908

28 February 1909


19 March 1911

25 March 1911

the last Sunday in February 1913

23 February 1917

27 February 1917


December 1977





Vocab suggestions

Vocabulary connected to the lexical field

expansion and turbulence
booming population growth
radical ideologies
staged a protest
inhumane working conditions
labour union
basic rights
the workplace
marched through NY City
demanding shorter work hours, better pay voting    rights and an end to child labour
economic security
the declaration of the Socialist Party of America
an international conference
a proposal
an International Day to mark the strike
the proposal was greeted with unanimous approval
elected to
established to honour the movement
the right to vote
the declaration
a series of rallies
they demanded the right to work and an end to    discrimination on the job
lack of safety measures
led many protests
funeral march
labour legislation
the peace movement brewing on the eve of
to express solidarity with
opposed the timing of the strike
granted the right to vote

How It Happened

How It Happened -
A Brief History of International Women's Day

The idea of an International Women's Day first arose at the turn of the century, which in the industrialized world was a period of expansion and turbulence, booming population growth and radical ideologies.

On 8 March 1857, women working in clothing and textile factories (called 'garment workers') in New York City, in the United States, staged a protest. They were fighting against inhumane working conditions and low wages. The police attacked the protestors and dispersed them. Two years later, again in March, these women formed their first labour union to try and protect themselves and gain some basic rights in the workplace.

On 8 March 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter work hours, better pay, voting rights and an end to child labour. They adopted the slogan "Bread and Roses", with bread symbolizing economic security and roses a better quality of life. In May, the Socialist Party of America designated the last Sunday in February for the observance of National Women's Day.

Following the declaration of the Socialist Party of America, the first ever National Woman's Day was celebrated in the United States on 28 February 1909. Women continued to celebrate it on the last Sunday of that month through 1913.

An international conference, held by socialist organizations from around the world, met in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1910. The conference of the Socialist International proposed a Women's Day which was designed to be international in character. The proposal initially came from Clara Zetkin, a German socialist, who suggested an International Day to mark the strike of garment workers in the United States. The proposal was greeted with unanimous approval by the conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, including the first three women elected to the parliament of Finland. The Day was established to honour the movement for women's rights, including the right to vote (known as 'suffrage'). At that time no fixed date was selected for the observance.

The declaration of the Socialist International had an impact. The following year, 1911, International Women's Day was marked for the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. The date was March 19 and over a million men and women took to the streets in a series of rallies. In addition to the right to vote and to hold public office, they demanded the right to work and an end to discrimination on the job.

Less than a week later, on 25 March, the tragic Triangle Fire in New York City took place. Over 140 workers, mostly young Italian and Jewish immigrant girls working at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, lost their lives because of the lack of safety measures. The Women's Trade Union League and the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union led many of the protests against this avoidable tragedy, including the silent funeral march which brought together a crowd of over 100,000 people. The Triangle Fire had a significant impact on labour legislation and the horrible working conditions leading up to the disaster were invoked during subsequent observances of International Women's Day.

As part of the peace movement brewing on the eve of World War I, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. Elsewhere in Europe, on or around 8 March of the following year, women held rallies either to protest the war or to express solidarity with their sisters.

With 2 million Russian soldiers dead in the war, Russian women again chose the last Sunday in February 1917 to strike for "bread and peace". Political leaders opposed the timing of the strike, but the women went on anyway.

The rest is history: Four days later the Czar of Russia was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. That historic Sunday fell on 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia, but coincided with 8 March on the Gregorian calendar used by people elsewhere.


Since those early years, International Women's Day has assumed a new global dimension for women in developed and developing countries alike.

In December 1977 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming a United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace. Four global United Nations women's conferences have helped make the demand for women's rights and participation in the political and economic process a growing reality.

In 1975 the UN drew global attention to women's concerns by calling for an International Women's year and convening the first conference on women in Mexico City. Another convention was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1980.

In 1985, the UN convened a third conference on women in Nairobi, Kenya, to look at what had been achieved at the end of the decade.

In 1995, Beijing hosted the Fourth World Conference on Women. Representatives from 189 different countries agreed that inequalities between women and men has serious consequences for the well-being of all people. The conference declared a set of goals for progress of women in various areas including politics, health, and education. The final document issued by the conference (called the "Platform for Action") had this to say: "The advancement of women and the achievement of equality between women and men are a matter of human rights and a condition for social justice and should not be seen in isolation as a women's issue."

Five years later, in a 23rd special session of the United Nations General Assembly, "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the 21st Century" reviewed the progress the world has made towards achieving the goals set out by the Beijing conference. This conference has come to be known as the "Beijing +5" conference. Delegates found both progress and perservering obstacles. The delegates made further agreements to continue carrying out the initiatives of the 1995 women's conference.

Discussion points

With your partner(s), consider the following points:

1. Is there a need in your country to celebrate Women's Day? Why (not)?

2. What can we do to help women's rights?

3. What could your government do to help?

4. What could be done in schools to help?


To a print friendly version

Human Billboards
Advertising on foreheads

Advertising is a great theme to use at any level. We are all bombarded with ads all day long & when an interesting one comes along we take notice. There are a lot of materials in coursebooks as it is a very exploitable theme. Here's another way of getting into the theme with intermediate & up.

The Guardian published an article recently on their web site about an advertising company that is offering money to students to put logos on their foreheads.

Here's the text:

Students cash in on 'human billboards' plan

John Cassy, media business correspondent
Friday February 7, 2003
The Guardian

Instead of using their brains to better themselves, students are being encouraged to use their heads to alleviate their debts. Or, more precisely, their foreheads.

A creative marketing agency, best known for projecting an image of the television presenter Gail Porter on to the Houses of Parliament, has embarked on an initiative to turn students' foreheads into billboards.

The agency, Cunning Stunts, is offering students up to £88.20 a week to wear a corporate logo on their head for a minimum of three hours each day. The brand or product message will be attached by a vegetable dye transfer and the students will be paid to leave the logos untouched.

The "lads" magazine FHM and the youth pay-TV channel CNX, have signed up, and there is a recruitment drive for students at Oxford, Umist in Manchester, Leeds, and Roehampton in London.

"With student debt becoming such a massive issue, we thought we'd offer students maximum reward for minimum input," said Anna Carloss, managing director of Cunning Stunts. "Participating brands get a unique advertising medium as well as giving something back to students." She said the students would need to be "out and about"; it would not count if they displayed the logos sitting in the library.

Although many students are reluctant to take part, others are eager to sign up. Oli Merrel, at Falmouth College of Arts, in Cornwall, said: "I don't see the difference between an advert on a billboard and one on my forehead - except I'll be earning money from it."

Meanwhile, a second marketing firm, Comm-Motion, wants drivers to allow their car to be "wrapped" in the livery of a high-profile brand. Lindsay Kennard, marketing director, said the fee for covering a car in an advert could be up to £220 a month.

To go to the original article

A possible procedure for using this:

- elicit any interesting recent adverts - at the moment we have the Pepsi ad that uses Real Madrid & Manchester United players in a western shoot out.

- brainstorm advertising vocab - build up a map of the lexical set on the board &, from the text, include: billboard, marketing agency, corporate logo, brand/product message, advertising medium.

- elicit where adverts are usually found - billboards, TV, radio, magazines - & then ask the students to think of any unusual places one might put an advert. Put them into pairs for this.

- as they do the task put the title on the board - 'Students cash in on 'human billboards' plan' - & get them thinking along these lines while they continue their discussion.

- reading - give 20 seconds for them to work out what the text is about. Have a pair work comparison before general feedback as if they don't know the word 'forehead' they might not get it. In pairs they could work it out.

- more detailed reading - a comprehension task, designed by the students - they write 6 questions of their own & swap them for others to answer.

- discussion - would they do this, how much would they do it for, will the idea take off, what about the car wrapping, any other imaginative ideas.......

Follow up ideas:

- design a logo for your school, company, family, you! If you want more material on how to go about designing a logo, a good place to start is the logo page of

- you need to find a variety of logos from the media & without the students seeing the logo (they close their eyes), stick logos on their foreheads with cellotape & then they mingle to give & be given hints as to the logos with the object of guessing their own logo. Then collect in all of the logos for the class to vote on the one that best represents the product/company. Could begin the lesson with this.

- roleplay - confront a logo wearer in the street - Olif & passer-by/friend/parent/partner who thinks it is a daft idea.

The Guardian went on to run a competition on the same theme. They issued a sticker of the Guardian logo & you had to put it on your forehead & be photographed in interesting places. The winner would be the most imaginative. You could do the same with your school's logo!

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